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Several elements are doped in Zn O films, such as B [16, 17], Al, Ga, In (from group III elements) , F (from group VII element) , and so forth.
In this paper, sputtering, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are described in details, since Zn O-based TCO films based on these methods can get the highest quality.
The first two methods allowing large area deposition make them the most advanced and efficient deposition techniques for Zn O film.
A carrier concentration on the order of 10: Sn, or ITO), and Zn O (Zn O: Al and Zn O: Ga) films have been researched so far in this field [5, 6].
Among them, tin-doped indium-oxide (ITO) is the one in practical use [7, 8].
For the design and realization of Zn O-based devices, one of the most significant issues is doping, which necessarily involves the heavy doping with trivalent elements from the group III (Al, Ga, In).
Minami summed up the resistivity of impurity-doped binary compound TCO films reported among thirty years and found that the obtained minimum resistivity of impurity-doped Zn O films is still decreasing, while Sn O films have essentially remained unchanged .
This may explain the reason why the best electrical properties of Zn O-based films are observed in Ga-doped Zn O thin films .
The conductive property of Zn O thin films is primarily dominated by electrons generated by oxygen vacancies and charge donation.
Besides, it has a more proper work function for the transparent contact cathode electrodes of transparent OLEDs .
Nevertheless, many problems associated with substituting Zn O-based TCO films for ITO still exist.