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Composition can also have an effect on the environment because different population subgroups behave differently.
Second, migration shifts relative pressures exerted on local environments, easing the strain in some areas and increasing it in others.
Finally, urbanization, particularly in less-developed regions, frequently outpaces the development of infrastructure and environmental regulations, often resulting in high levels of pollution.
In the second half of the twentieth century, decreasing farmland contributed to growing concern of the limits to global food production.
Assuming constant rates of production, per capita land requirements for food production will near the limits of arable land over the course of the twenty-first century.
The distribution of people around the globe has three main implications for the environment.
First, as less-developed regions cope with a growing share of population, pressures intensify on already dwindling resources within these areas.As a result, given the relatively large younger generation, we might anticipate increasing levels of migration and urbanization, and therefore, intensified urban environmental concerns.Other aspects of population composition are also important: Income is especially relevant to environmental conditions.Furthermore, higher levels of income tend to correlate with disproportionate consumption of energy and production of waste.Current technology, policies, and culture influence the relationship between human population dynamics and the natural environment.In Hunter concludes that population dynamics have important environmental implications but that the sheer size of population represents only one important variable in this complex relationship.Other demographic dynamics, including changes in population flows and densities, can also pose challenging environmental problems.At highly advanced development stages, environmental pressures may subside because of improved technologies and energy efficiency.Within countries and across households, however, the relationship between income and environmental pressure is different.Between 19, Earth's population doubled from three billion to six billion people.In many ways, this reflected good news for humanity: child mortality rates plummeted, life expectancy increased, and people were on average healthier and better nourished than at any time in history.