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The table should now read: a A b B ⇌ d D e E I 0.750 1.500 0 0 C -ax -bx dx ex E 0.750-ax 1.500-bx dx ex The expressions for each species on the “E” line represent the concentrations of each species at equilibrium These expressions should now be substituted in the equilibrium expression Solve for unknown “x” Assumptions for ICE Table If K is small, assume x is negligible In other words: [A]int – x = [A]eq ≈ [A]int Remember, a small K means there are mostly reactants at equilibrium so initial quantities vary very little from final quantities Differences are negligible Assumptions for the ICE Table The 5% Rule of Thumb Once you solve for x, check to see if assumption is justified Divide “x” by initial concentration If error is less than 5%, then assumption was justified! If K is not small or error was greater than 5%, you must use quadratic formula to solve for x! A sample of phosgene gas, COCl2, is allowed to decompose: COCl2 (g) CO (g) Cl2 (g) The value of Kc for the equilibrium is 2.2 x 10-10 at 100 o C If the initial concentration of COCl2 is 0.095M, what will be the equilibrium concentrations for each of the species involved? COCl2 (g) ↔ CO (g) Cl2 (g) I 0.095 0.000 0.000 C -X X X E (0.095 -X) X X Kc = [ CO ] [Cl2 ] [ COCl2 ] = X2 (0.095 - X) Practice!
Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction 2. The ICE Table – A Useful Tool To set up the ICE table, first write the equilibrium equation on your paper Then at the beginning of the first line under the equilibrium equation, write the letter “I” On the second line below the equilibrium reaction, write the letter “C” under the letter “I” “I” stands for initial concentrations (or pressures) for each species in the reaction mixture “C” represents the change in the concentrations (or pressures) for each species as the system moves towards equilibrium And on the third line below the equilibrium reaction, write the letter “E” under the letter “C” “E” represents the equilibrium concentrations (or pressures) of each species when the system is in a state of equilibrium The ICE Table After this part of the process, the table should look like the example table below using the general equilibrium reaction: a A b B ⇌ d D e D a A b B ⇌ d D e E I C E In the chemical equilibrium, a, b, d, and e represent the stoichiometric coefficients of the reaction and can be 1, 3, 4, 2, ½, etc.
A, B, D and E represent the reactants and products The ICE Table Now, fill the table with all known concentrations These are the concentrations that are given in the problem Example - Suppose for the equilibrium reaction below, the initial concentrations of A and B were given as 0.750 M in A and 1.500 M in B The table will look as follows: a A I C E 0.750 b B 1.500 ⇌ d D 0 e E 0 The ICE Table Now, the rest of the table should be filled out This is done by first noting that the equation will shift in only one direction Indicate an amount, x, that it shifts In this case, it can only shift right since there are no products present Always write the stoichiometric coefficient in front of x Put a minus sign in front of any species for which the concentration decreases and use a plus sign in front of x of any species for which the concentration increases a A b B ⇌ d D e E I 0.750 1.500 0 0 C -ax -bx dx ex E The ICE Table Fill the last line of the table Each concentration on the last line is the sum of the concentrations for that species as shown on the “I” line and the “C” line.
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Grobsky Types of Equilibrium Problems A typical equilibrium problem involves finding the equilibrium concentrations (or pressures) of reactants and products Initial concentrations (or pressures) are given Equilibrium constant is given General Procedure to Solve For Equilibrium Concentrations 1. The chemical equation, once written out, represents a chemical equilibrium Write the equilibrium expression List or calculate initial concentrations (or pressures) with information given If there are products present initially, calculate Q to make sure system is not already at equilibrium If Q ≠ K, set up an ICE table!
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This page contains links to guides to solving many of the the types of quantitative problems found in Chemistry 116.
If you don't know where to start, try the links with the same name as the chapter the problem comes from.
To study the decomposition of hydrogen iodide, a student fills an evacuated 3 litre flask with 0.3 mol of HI gas and allows the reaction to proceed at 500 0C.
At equilibrium he found the concentration of HI which is equal to 0.05 M.