# How To Solve Chemical Equilibrium Problems The table should now read: a A   b B ⇌ d D e E I 0.750 1.500 0 0 C -ax -bx dx ex E 0.750-ax 1.500-bx dx ex The expressions for each species on the “E” line represent the concentrations of each species at equilibrium These expressions should now be substituted in the equilibrium expression  Solve for unknown “x” Assumptions for ICE Table  If K is small, assume x is negligible  In other words: [A]int – x = [A]eq ≈ [A]int  Remember, a small K means there are mostly reactants at equilibrium so initial quantities vary very little from final quantities  Differences are negligible Assumptions for the ICE Table  The 5% Rule of Thumb  Once you solve for x, check to see if assumption is justified  Divide “x” by initial concentration  If error is less than 5%, then assumption was justified! If K is not small or error was greater than 5%, you must use quadratic formula to solve for x!  A sample of phosgene gas, COCl2, is allowed to decompose: COCl2 (g)   CO (g) Cl2 (g) The value of Kc for the equilibrium is 2.2 x 10-10 at 100 o C If the initial concentration of COCl2 is 0.095M, what will be the equilibrium concentrations for each of the species involved? COCl2 (g) ↔ CO (g) Cl2 (g) I 0.095 0.000 0.000 C -X X X E (0.095 -X) X X Kc = [ CO ] [Cl2 ] [ COCl2 ] = X2 (0.095 - X) Practice!

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Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction  2. The ICE Table – A Useful Tool   To set up the ICE table, first write the equilibrium equation on your paper Then at the beginning of the first line under the equilibrium equation, write the letter “I”   On the second line below the equilibrium reaction, write the letter “C” under the letter “I”   “I” stands for initial concentrations (or pressures) for each species in the reaction mixture “C” represents the change in the concentrations (or pressures) for each species as the system moves towards equilibrium And on the third line below the equilibrium reaction, write the letter “E” under the letter “C”  “E” represents the equilibrium concentrations (or pressures) of each species when the system is in a state of equilibrium The ICE Table  After this part of the process, the table should look like the example table below using the general equilibrium reaction: a A b B ⇌ d D e D a A b B ⇌ d D e E I C E   In the chemical equilibrium, a, b, d, and e represent the stoichiometric coefficients of the reaction and can be 1, 3, 4, 2, ½, etc.

A, B, D and E represent the reactants and products The ICE Table   Now, fill the table with all known concentrations  These are the concentrations that are given in the problem Example - Suppose for the equilibrium reaction below, the initial concentrations of A and B were given as 0.750 M in A and 1.500 M in B  The table will look as follows: a A I C E 0.750 b B 1.500 ⇌ d D 0 e E 0 The ICE Table   Now, the rest of the table should be filled out This is done by first noting that the equation will shift in only one direction   Indicate an amount, x, that it shifts   In this case, it can only shift right since there are no products present Always write the stoichiometric coefficient in front of x Put a minus sign in front of any species for which the concentration decreases and use a plus sign in front of x of any species for which the concentration increases a A b B ⇌ d D e E I 0.750 1.500 0 0 C -ax -bx dx ex E The ICE Table  Fill the last line of the table  Each concentration on the last line is the sum of the concentrations for that species as shown on the “I” line and the “C” line.

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Grobsky Types of Equilibrium Problems A typical equilibrium problem involves finding the equilibrium concentrations (or pressures) of reactants and products   Initial concentrations (or pressures) are given Equilibrium constant is given General Procedure to Solve For Equilibrium Concentrations 1. The chemical equation, once written out, represents a chemical equilibrium Write the equilibrium expression List or calculate initial concentrations (or pressures) with information given If there are products present initially, calculate Q to make sure system is not already at equilibrium  If Q ≠ K, set up an ICE table!

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This page contains links to guides to solving many of the the types of quantitative problems found in Chemistry 116.

If you don't know where to start, try the links with the same name as the chapter the problem comes from.

To study the decomposition of hydrogen iodide, a student fills an evacuated 3 litre flask with 0.3 mol of HI gas and allows the reaction to proceed at 500 0C.

At equilibrium he found the concentration of HI which is equal to 0.05 M.

## Comments How To Solve Chemical Equilibrium Problems

• ###### Solving Equilibrium Problems - Chemistry LibreTexts

If we need a more exact quantitative description of the equilibrium condition, then a ladder diagram is insufficient. In this case we need to find an algebraic solution. In this section we will learn how to set-up and solve equilibrium problems. We will start with a simple problem and work toward more complex problems.…

• ###### Techniques for Solving Equilibrium Problems - Purdue University

Subsitute concentrations into the equilibrium expression. Assume that A - x = A, simplify the equation, and solve for the change. Check to see if the change is less than 5% of the starting quantity, or within the limits set by your instructor. Calculate the equilibrium amounts if asked to do so. Check your work.…

• ###### Solved Problems Of Chemical Equilibrium - askIITians

Learn the concepts of Solved Problems Of Chemical Equilibrium with the help of study material for IIT JEE by askIITians. Click to Chat. 1800-1023-196 +91-120-4616500.…

• ###### Equilibrium Practice Problems

The equilibrium constant for the following reaction is 600C is 4.0. Initially, two moles of CO and one mole of H2O were mixed in a 1.0 liter container. Determine the concentration of all species at equilibrium.…

• ###### How To Calculate The Equilibrium Constant K - Chemical Equilibrium.

This chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into how to solve chemical equilibrium problems. It explains how to calculate the equilibrium constant k value given the equilibrium.…

• ###### Chemical Equilibrium Problem Solving - YouTube

Basic worked example showing how to setup an ICE table to solve chemical equilibrium problems when you are given initial concentrations.…

• ###### Chapter 15.3 Solving Equilibrium Problems

A large equilibrium constant implies that the reactants are converted almost entirely to products, so we can assume that the reaction proceeds 100% to completion. When we solve this type of problem, we view the system as equilibrating from the products side of the reaction rather than the reactants side. This approach is illustrated in Example 13.…