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If you use class notes, some lecturers are not too worried about citations, although it is usually good practice to find a source saying the same information, from a textbook or journal.
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General knowledge, such as 'Crick and Watson discovered the structure of DNA,' will not need referencing.
Common knowledge in the field is generally fine, too, although you should err on the side of caution.
Most of your introduction, and much of your discussion, involve building upon the research of others, placing your research project in the context of previous findings in the field.
It is perfectly acceptable to quote the work of others and, in fact, it is essential that you do so.For example, This makes it clear that you could not access the original work, and that you correctly attribute the original findings to the researcher who actually performed the initial research.A few standards, such as Chicago style and the Council of Biology Editors (BCE) use a footnote numbering system, where a number is used and cross-referenced with the endnote section and bibliography: It is always best to over cite, and avoid accusations of plagiarism, but there are a few times that citation is not necessary.Place the citation in parenthesis before the sentence's terminal punctuation point. Place in-text citations inside parenthesis and ensure that the citation is formatted correctly. For example: If Americans make more health-conscious adjustments to their lifestyles, they could prevent the onset of many chronic ailments, which encompass "some 75% of U. If you use the name of the author from whom you borrowed the information in the sentence, as "Dr. In this case, you use the name of the organization or a recognized abbreviation.For example, NHS, for the National Health Service, or WHO, for the World Health Organization.If you use one style all of the way through, there should be no problem, but mixing the styles makes things unclear to the reader and may well be punished by your supervisor.The American Psychological Association standard (APA-standard) is used in most social and psychological papers, and variations of the author/date style are used by many scientific disciplines.Hopkins, the lead scientist at the University of Oceania's Biological Research Center, indicates that...," then the citation should only include the page number of the reference, as "(637)." If you don't use the author's name, then you have to include the author's last name and the page number on which the information is found, as "(Hopkins, 637)." If the reference has no known author, use the title of the reference, or a shortened version of the title if the title is very long, and include the page number on which the reference is found. Include all the references that appear in your research paper on a page that is separate from the actual essay and label the page "Works Cited" with the title centered.