Scores of .70 or higher indicate that the instrument has high reliability when the stakes are moderate.
Scores of .80 and higher are appropriate when the stakes are high.
Validity means that individual scores from a particular instrument are meaningful, make sense, and allow researchers to draw conclusions from the sample to the population that is being studied (69) Researchers often refer to "content" or "face" validity.
Content validity or face validity is the extent to which questions on an instrument are representative of the possible questions that a researcher could ask about that particular content or skills.
The instrument can be assumed to be free of bias and measurement error (68).
Alpha coefficients are often used to report an estimate of internal consistency.
If more than one rater is used, then inter-rater reliability must be established among the raters to yield meaningful results.
While the PJRF can be used to assess the effectiveness of training programs for individuals or groups, the evaluation of participants' actual skills are best measured by an objective tool such as the California Critical Thinking Skills Test.
Since behavioral science measures can be impacted by social-desirability bias-the participant's desire to answer in ways that would please the researcher-researchers are urged to have participants take the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale simultaneously when measuring pre- and post-test changes in critical thinking skills. This test has been correlated with the CCTDI with a sample of 1,557 nursing education students.
Results show that, r = .201, and the relationship between the CCTST and the CCTDI is significant at p Items within this inventory cover the domain of CT cognitive skills identified by a Delphi group of experts whose work resulted in the development of the CCTDI and CCTST.